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Primary Source Diary

Designed by Kristen Demlow, School of Information, University of Michigan

This assignment designed for middle and high school students, but applicable as well to early undergaduate teaching, requires students to investigate primary sources by creating a personal diary using particular titles.

PRIMARY SOURCE DIARY

Objective: To create a month long diary which reflects the social, occupational, religious, political, and home life of an individual in 16th/17th century England using primary and secondary sources.

Ideally, this assignment will be a joint project between history and language arts, with the possibility of smaller discussion sections in science, music, art, etc.

  • Prior to the assignment, background information on the period and use of primary sources will be discussed. While working to create the diary, students will be asked to consider the following questions about their sources:
    • Author
    • Purpose (Why was the piece written?)
    • Audience (At whom was the piece directed?)
    • Context (How was the piece presented/used?)
    • How does your perception of the document contents change when considering these?
    • Do secondary sources support or discount the primary sources?
    • How did you reconcile primary and/or secondary sources if conflicting information was present?
  • Students will choose (or be assigned) an occupation to research. Along with the occupation, primary texts focusing on the profession will be provided. A resource of additional primary sources providing information general to the period will be available in the classroom or library.
  • Students will be responsible for finding at least two secondary sources that will assist in giving insight for their projects. The secondary sources may be books, electronic database resources, websites, periodicals, etc.
  • The end result will be a daily diary which is reflective of the life of a fictional personage, developed with the assistance of the resources. These reflections will be centered upon the social, occupational, religious, political and home life of the individual.
  • Students will also prepare a summary of their diary to be presented in class.

Michigan Curriculum Standards

At the time that this course was designed, the Michigan curriculum standards that may be addressed in this project are as follows:

    • Middle school standards
    • English Language Arts
    • Strand I/Content Standard 1
    • Benchmark 2

Read with developing fluency a variety of texts, such as short stories, novels, poetry, plays, textbooks, manuals, and periodicals.

    • Strand I/Content Standard 2
    • Benchmark 3v Plan and draft texts, and revise and edit their own writing, and help others revise and edit their texts in such areas as content, perspective, and effect.
    • Strand I/Content Standard 3
    • Benchmark 6

Determine the meaning of unfamiliar words and concepts in oral, visual, and written texts by using a variety of resources, such as semantic and structural features, prior knowledge, reference materials, and electronic sources.

    • Strand VI/Content Standard 8
    • Benchmark 3

Describe and use characteristics of various informational genre (e.g., biographies, newspapers, brochures, and persuasive arguments and essays) and elements of expository text structure (e.g. multiple patterns of organization, relational links and central purposes) to convey ideas.

    • Strand VII/Content Standard 9
    • Benchmark 2

Synthesize content from multiple texts representing varied perspectives in order to formulate principles and generalizations.

    • Social Studies
    • Strand I/Content Standard 3
    • Benchmark 2

Analyze interpretations of major events selected from African, Asian, Canadian, European and Latin American history to reveal the perspectives of the authors.

    • Science (possible)
    • Strand II/Content Standard 1
    • Benchmark 6

Recognize the contributions made in science by cultures and individuals of diverse backgrounds.

    • High school standards
    • English Language Arts
    • Strand I/Content Standard 1
    • Benchmark 2

Read with developing fluency a variety of texts, such as novels, poetry, drama, essays, research texts, technical manuals, and documents.

    • Strand I/Content Standard 2
    • Benchmark 3

Plan, draft, revise, and edit their texts, and analyze and critique the texts of others in such areas as purpose, effectiveness, cohesion, and creativity.

    • Strand I/Content Standard 3
    • Benchmark 6

Determine the meaning of specialized vocabulary and concepts in oral, visual, and written texts by using a variety of resources, such as context, research, reference materials, and electronic sources.

    • Strand II/Content Standard 4
    • Benchmark 3

Explore and explain how the same words can have different usage and meaning in different contexts, cultures, and communities.

    • Strand VI/Content Standard 8
    • Benchmark 3

Describe and use characteristics of informational genre (e.g., manuals, briefings, documentaries, and research presentations) and complex elements of expository texts (e.g., thesis statement, supporting ideas, and authoritative and/or statistical evidence) to convey ideas.

    • Strand VI/Content Standard 8
    • Benchmark 5

Describe and use the characteristics of various oral, visual, and written texts (e.g., debate, drama, primary documents, and documentaries) and textual aids (e.g., prefaces, appendices, lighting effects, and microfiche headings) to convey meaning and inspire audiences.

    • Strand VII/Content Standard 9
    • Benchmark 2

Synthesize from multiple texts representing varied perspectives, and apply the principles and generalizations needed to investigate and confront complex issues and problems.

    • Social Studies
    • Strand I/Content Standard 1
    • Benchmark 3

Identify some of the major eras in world history and describe their defining characteristics.

    • Strand V/Content Standard 1
    • Benchmark 1

Locate information pertaining to a specific social science topic in-depth using a variety of sources and electronic technologies.

    • Strand V/Content Standard 1
    • Benchmark 2

Use traditional and electronic means to organize and interpret information pertaining to a specific social science topic and prepare it for in-depth presentation.

    • Strand V/Content Standard 1
    • Benchmark 3

Develop generalizations pertaining to a specific social science topic by interpreting information from a variety of sources.

    • Science
    • Strand II/Content Standard 1
    • Benchmark 4

Discuss the historical development of key scientific concepts and principles.

    • Strand II/Content Standard 1
    • Benchmark 7

Describe the historical, political, and social factors affecting the developments in science.

Actor

Author: Collier, Jeremy, 1650-1726.

Title: A short view of the immorality, and profaneness of the English stage together with the sense of antiquity upon this argument

Author: Heywood, Thomas, d. 1641.

Title: An apology for actors. Containing three briefe treatises. 1 Their antiquity. 2 Their ancient dignity. 3 The true vse of their quality.

American Settler/Explorer

Author: Berkeley, William, Sir, 1608-1677.

Title: A discourse and view of Virginia

Publication date: 1663?

Author: Winslow, Edward, 1595-1655.

Title: Good nevves from New-England: or A true relation of things very remarkable at the plantation of Plimoth in Nevv-England. Shewing the wondrous providence and goodnes of God, in their preservation and continuance, being delivered from many apparant deaths and dangers. Together with a relation of such religious and civill lawes and customes, as are in practise amongst the Indians, adjoyning to them at this day. As also what commodities are there to be raysed for the maintenance of that and other plantations in the said country. Written by E.W. who hath borne a part in the fore-named troubles, and there liued since their first arrivall. Wherevnto is added by him a briefe relation of a credible intelligence of the present estate of Virginia.

Publication date: 1624

Author: Tryon, Thomas, 1634-1703.

Title: The planter’s speech to his neighbours & country-men of Pennsylvania, East & West Jersey and to all such as have transported themselves into new-colonies for the sake of a quiet retired life : to which is added the complaints of our supra-inferior inhabitants.

Publication date: 1684.

Author: Hariot, Thomas, 1560-1621.

Title: A briefe and true report of the new found land of Virginia. of the commodities and of the nature and manners of the naturall inhabitants. Discouered by the English colon there seated by Sir Richard Greinuile Knight in the eere 1585. Which remained vnder the gouernement of twelue monethes, at the speciall charge and direction of the Honourable Sir Walter Raleigh Knight lord Warden of the stanneries who therein hath beene fauoured and authorised b her Maiestie :and her letters patents: This fore booke is made in English by Thomas Hariot seruant to the abouenamed Sir Walter, a member of the Colon, and there imploed in discouering Cum gratia et priuilegio Caes. Matis Speciali.

Publication date: [1590]

Author: Speed, John, 1552?-1629.

Title: An epitome of Mr. John Speed’s theatre of the empire of Great Britain. And of his prospect of the most famous parts of the world. In this new edition are added, the despciptions of His Majesties dominions abroad, viz. New England, New York, 226 Carolina, Florida, 251 Virginia, Maryland, 212 Jamaica, 232 Barbados, 239 as also the empire of the great Mogol, with the rest of the East-Indies, 255 the empire of Russia, 266 with their respective descriptions.

Publication date: 1676.

Author: Whitaker, Alexander, 1585-1617.

Title: Good nevves from Virginia. Sent to the Counsell and Company of Virginia, resident in England. From Alexander Whitaker, the minister of Henrico in Virginia. Wherein also is a narration of the present state of that countrey, and our colonies there. Perused and published by direction from that Counsell. And a preface prefixed of some matters touching that plantation, very requisite to be made knowne.

Publication date: 1613.

BAKER

Title: Wit and drollery joviall poems / corrected and much amended, with new additions, by Sir J.M. … Sir W.D. … and the most refined wits of the age.

Publication date: 1661.

Author: Kelly, John, biscuit-baker.

Title: An impartial relation of John Kelly’s services in the Victualling-Office. With an account of the great abuses he has met with from his opposers. Likewise his necessary vindication occasioned by their report to the Lords of the Admiralty.

Publication date: 1699

Author: Holme, Randle, 1627-1699.

Title: The academy of armory, or, A storehouse of armory and blazon containing the several variety of created beings, and how born in coats of arms, both foreign and domestick : with the instruments used in all trades and sciences, together with their terms of art : also the etymologies, definitions, and historical observations on the same, explicated and explained according to our modern language : very usefel [sic] for all gentlemen, scholars, divines, and all such as desire any knowledge in arts and sciences / by Randle Holme …

Publication date: 1688

Blacksmith

Title: Wit and drollery joviall poems / corrected and much amended, with new additions, by Sir J.M. … Sir W.D. … and the most refined wits of the age.

Publication date: 1661. (2)

Author: Holme, Randle, 1627-1699.

Title: The academy of armory, or, A storehouse of armory and blazon containing the several variety of created beings, and how born in coats of arms, both foreign and domestick : with the instruments used in all trades and sciences, together with their terms of art : also the etymologies, definitions, and historical observations on the same, explicated and explained according to our modern language : very usefel [sic] for all gentlemen, scholars, divines, and all such as desire any knowledge in arts and sciences / by Randle Holme …

Publication date: 1688

Clergyman (Protestant)

Author: Alleine, Theodosia

Title: The life & death of Mr. Joseph Alleine (minister)

Author: Herbert, George, 1593-1633.

Title: A priest to the temple, or, The country parson his character, and rule of holy life.

Author: Swinnock, George, 1627-1673.

Title: The life and death of Mr. Tho. Wilson, minister of Maidstone, in the county of Kent, M.A.

Publication date: 1672

Author: Fisher, Jasper, b. 1591.

Title: The priest’s duty & dignity. Preached at the trienniall visitation in Ampthill 1635. August 18. by Jasper Fisher Presbyter, and Rector of Willden in Bedford-shire. And published by command.

Publication date: 1536 [i.e. 1636]

COBBLER (cobler/shooemaker)

Author: Author of Westminster drollery.

Title: Mock songs and joking poems, all novel consisting of mocks to several late songs about the town : with other new songs and ingenious poems much in use at court, and both theaters / by the author of Westminster drollery.

Publication date: 1675.

Author: Holme, Randle, 1627-1699.

Title: The academy of armory, or, A storehouse of armory and blazon containing the several variety of created beings, and how born in coats of arms, both foreign and domestick : with the instruments used in all trades and sciences, together with their terms of art : also the etymologies, definitions, and historical observations on the same, explicated and explained according to our modern language : very usefel [sic] for all

    • COOK
    • Author: Holme, Randle, 1627-1699.
    • Title: The academy of armory, or, A storehouse of armory and blazon containing the several variety of created beings, and how born in coats of arms, both foreign and domestick : with the instruments used in all trades and sciences, together with their terms of art : also the etymologies, definitions, and historical observations on the same, explicated and explained according to our modern language : very usefel [sic] for all gentlemen, scholars, divines, and all such as desire any knowledge in arts and sciences / by Randle Holme …
    • Publication date: 1688
    • Author: Markham, Gervase, 1568?-1637.
    • Title: Countrey contentments, or The English husvvife. Containing the inward and outward vertues which ought to be in a compleate woman. As her skill in physicke, surgerie, extraction of oyles, banqueting-stuffe, ordering of great feasts, preseruing of all sorts of wines, conceited secrets, distillations, perfumes, ordering of wooll, hempe, flax, making cloth, dying, the knowledge of dayries, office of malting, oats, their excellent vses in a family, brewing, baking, and all other things belonging to an houshold. A worke generally approued, and now much augmented, purged and made most profitable and necessarie for all men, and dedicated to the honour of the noble house of Exceter, and the generall good of this kingdome. By G.M.
    • Publication date: 1623.
    • Author: Woolley, Hannah, fl. 1670.
    • Title: The queen-like closet; or, Rich cabinet stored with all manner of rare receipts for preserving, candying & cookery. Very pleasant and beneficial to all ingenious persons of the female sex. By Hannah Wolley.
    • Publication date: 1670.
    • COOPER
    • Title: Wit and drollery joviall poems / corrected and much amended, with new additions, by Sir J.M. … Sir W.D. … and the most refined wits of the age.
    • Publication date: 1661.
    • Author: M. P. (Martin Parker), d. 1656?
    • Title: The cooper of Norfolke: or, A pretty iest of a brewer and the coopers wife: and how the cooper served the brewer in his kind. To the tune of, The wiving age.
    • Publication date: [1630?]
    • Author: Holme, Randle, 1627-1699.
    • Title: The academy of armory, or, A storehouse of armory and blazon containing the several variety of created beings, and how born in coats of arms, both foreign and domestick : with the instruments used in all trades and sciences, together with their terms of art : also the etymologies, definitions, and historical observations on the same, explicated and explained according to our modern language : very usefel [sic] for all gentlemen, scholars, divines, and all such as desire any knowledge in arts and sciences / by Randle Holme …
    • Publication date: 1688
    • COTTAGERS/HUSBANDMEN (RENTERS)
    • Author: Dekker, Thomas, ca. 1572-1632.
    • Title: The cold yeare. 1614. A deepe snovv: in vvhich men and cattell haue perished, to the generall losse of farmers, grasiers, husbandmen, and all sorts of people in the countrie; and no lesse hurtfull to citizens. Written dialogue-wise, in a plaine familiar talke betweene a London shop-keeper, and a North-Country-man. In which, the reader shall finde many thinges for his profit.
    • Publication date: 1615
    • Author: Holme, Randle, 1627-1699.
    • Title: The academy of armory, or, A storehouse of armory and blazon containing the several variety of created beings, and how born in coats of arms, both foreign and domestick : with the instruments used in all trades and sciences, together with their terms of art : also the etymologies, definitions, and historical observations on the same, explicated and explained according to our modern language : very usefel [sic] for all gentlemen, scholars, divines, and all such as desire any knowledge in arts and sciences / by Randle Holme …
    • Publication date: 1688
    • DOCTOR/CYRURGION
    • Author: Wecker, Johann Jacob, 1528-1586.
    • Title: A compendious chyrurgerie: gathered, & translated (especially) out of Wecker, at the request of certaine, but encreased and enlightened with certaine annotations, resolutions & supplyes, not impertinent to this treatise, nor vnprofitable to the reader: published for the benefite of all his countreymen, by Ihon Banester maister in chyrurgerie.
    • Publication date: 1585.
    • Author: Salmon, William, 1644-1713.
    • Title: Medicina practica, or, Practical physick shewing the method of curing the most usual diseases happening to humane bodies … : to which is added, the philosophick works of Hermes Trismegistus, Kalid Persicus, Geber Arabs, Artesius Longævus, Nicholas Flammel, Roger Bachon and George Ripley : all translated out of the best Latin editions into English … : together with a singular comment upon the first book of Hermes, the most ancient of philosophers : the whole compleated in three books / by William Salmon …
    • Publication date: 1692.
    • Author: Digby, Kenelm, Sir, 1603-1665.
    • Title: Choice and experimented receipts in physick and chirurgery as also cordial and distilled waters and spirits, perfumes, and other curiosities / collected by … Sir Kenelm Digby, Knight …
    • Publication date: 1675.
    • Author: Banister, John, 1540-1610.
    • Title: An antidotarie chyrurgicall containing great varietie and choice of all sorts of medicines that commonly fal into the chyrurgions vse: partlie taken out of authors, olde and new, printed or written: partlie obtained by free gifte of sundrie worthie men of this profession within this land. By Iohn Banester master of chirurgerie.
    • Publication date: 1589.
    • EXPLORER
    • Author: Dampier, William, 1652-1715.
    • Title: A new voyage round the world describing particularly the isthmus of America, several coasts and islands in the West Indies, the isles of Cape Verd, the passage by Terra del Fuego, the South Sea coasts of Chili, Peru and Mexico, the isle of Guam one of the Ladrones, Mindanao, and other Philippine and East-India islands near Cambodia, China, Formosa, Luconia, Celebes, &c., New Holland, Sumatra, Nicobar Isles, the Cape of Good Hope, and Santa Hellena : their soil, rivers, harbours, plants, fruits, animals, and inhabitants: their customs, religion, government, trade, &c. / by William Dampier ; illustrated with particular maps and draughts.
    • Author: Gainsford, Thomas, d. 1624?

Title: The glory of England, or A true description of many excellent prerogatiues and remarkeable blessings, whereby she triumpheth ouer all the nations of the world vvith a iustifiable comparison betweene the eminent kingdomes of the earth, and herselfe: plainely manifesting the defects of them all in regard of her sufficiencie and fulnesse of happinesse. By T.G.

  • Publication date: 1618.
  • Author: Leo, Africanus, ca. 1492-ca. 1550.
  • Title: A geographical historie of Africa, written in Arabicke and Italian by Iohn Leo a More, borne in Granada, and brought vp in Barbarie. Wherein he hath at large described, not onely the qualities, situations, and true distances of the regions, cities, townes, mountaines, riuers, and other places throughout all the north and principall partes of Africa; but also the descents and families of their kings … gathered partly out of his owne diligent obseruations, and partly out of the ancient records and chronicles of the Arabians and Mores. Before which, out of the best ancient and moderne writers, is prefixed a generall description of Africa, and also a particular treatise of all the maine lands and isles vndescribed by Iohn Leo. … Translated and collected by Iohn Pory, lately of Goneuill and Caius College in Cambridge.
  • Publication date: 1600.
  • Author: Raleigh, Walter, Sir, 1552?-1618.
  • Title: The discouerie of the large, rich, and bevvtiful empire of Guiana with a relation of the great and golden citie of Manoa (which the spanyards call El Dorado) and the prouinces of Emeria, Arromaia, Amapaia, and other countries, with their riuers, adioyning. Performed in the yeare 1595. by Sir W. Ralegh Knight, captaine of her Maiesties Guard, Lo. Warden of the Sannerries [sic], and her Highnesse Lieutenant generall of the countie of Cornewall.
  • Publication date: 1596.
  • Author: Zárate, Agustin de, b. 1514.
  • Title: The discouerie and conquest of the prouinces of Peru, and the nauigation in the South Sea, along that coast. And also of the ritche mines of Potosi.
  • Publication date: Febru 6. 1581.
  • GARDENER
  • Author: Lawson, William, fl. 1618.
  • Title: A nevv orchard and garden, or, The best way for planting, grafting, and to make any ground good for a rich orchard particularly in the nor[th] and generally for the whole kingdome of England, as in nature, reason, situation and all probabilitie, may and doth appeare : with the country housewifes garden for hearbes of common vse, their vertues, seasons, profits, ornaments, varietie of knots, models for trees, and plots for the best ordering of grounds and walkes : as also the husbandry of bees, with their seuerall vses and annoyances, being the experience of 48 yeares labour … / by William Lawson ; whereunto is newly added the art of propagating plants, with the tree ordering manner of fruits in their gathering, carring home & preseruation.
  • Publication date: 1631.
  • Author: Evelyn, John, 1620-1706.
  • Title: A philosophical discourse of earth relating to the culture and improvement of it for vegetation, and the propagation of plants, &c. as it was presented to the Royal Society, April 29, 1675.
  • Publication date: 1676.
  • Author: Evelyn, John, 1620-1706
  • Title: Kalendarium hortense, or, The gard’ners almanac directing what he is to do monethly throughout the year, and what fruits and flowers are in prime / by John Evelyn.
  • Publication date: MDCLXVI [1666]
  • MAID/SERVING WOMAN
  • Author: Woolley, Hannah, fl. 1670
  • Title: The compleat servant-maid; or, The young maidens tutor. Directing them how they may fit, and qualifie themselves for any of these employments. Viz. Waiting woman, house-keeper, chamber-maid, cook-maid, under cook-maid, nursery-maid, dairy-maid, laundry-maid, house-maid, scullery-maid. Composed for the great benefit and advantage of all young maidens.
  • Publication date: 1677
  • Author: Woolley, Hannah, fl. 1670.v
  • Title: The gentlewomans companion; or, A guide to the female sex containing directions of behaviour, in all places, companies, relations, and conditions, from their childhood down to old age: viz. As, children to parents. Scholars to governours. Single to servants. Virgins to suitors. Married to husbands. Huswifes to the house Mistresses to servants. Mothers to children. Widows to the world Prudent to all. With letters and discourses upon all occasions. Whereunto is added, a guide for cook-maids, dairy-maids, chamber-maids, and all others that go to service. The whole being an exact rule for the female sex in general.
  • MERCHANT
  • Author: T. G., fl. 1616.
  • Title: The rich cabinet furnished with varietie of excellent discriptions, exquisite charracters, witty discourses, and delightfull histories, deuine and morrall. Together with inuectiues against many abuses of the time: digested alphabetically into common places. Wherevnto is annexed the epitome of good manners, exttracted from Mr. Iohn de la Casa, Arch-bishop of Beneuenta.
  • Publication date: 1616.
  • Author: Molloy, Charles, 1646-1690.
  • Title: De jure maritimo et navali, or, A treatise of affairs maritime and of commerce in three books / by Charles Molloy.
  • Publication date: 1676.
  • Author: Tryon, Thomas, 1634-1703.
  • Title: England’s grandeur, and way to get wealth: or, Promotion of trade made easy and lands advanced; beneficial to particular persons, and to the kingdom in general; wherein many thousand of indigent poor families may be employed; breaches made in our trade by the French, Portuguese, Genoese, Swedes, Dutch and Danes, demonstrated. Furnishing funerals by undertakers, making buttons and shoe-buckles of various sorts of metals, a great detriment to weavers of tape, cotton, ferrit, and silk-riband, and in short to all other trades, the West India trade discouraged, … the prejudice of trade by strangers, that are lodgers and inmates only, who by their monopolizing ways, have got estates, and then bid farewel to England, the cause of the rent of houses falling, the reasons why great taxes cannot easily be paid, laying taxes on the back and belly, the best way to raise money, which will hurt neither rich nor poor, provided navigation and free circulation of trade be maintained, and merchants encouraged. Reasons why we have not a more considerable trade now the war is over. A remedy proposed to cure this malady. By T. Tryon, merchant of London.
  • Publication date: 1699.
  • MONARCH
  • Queen Elizabeth’s speech to her last Parliament, made 30. November. 1601. (EEBO)
  • Author: Holme, Randle, 1627-1699.
  • Title: The academy of armory, or, A storehouse of armory and blazon containing the several variety of created beings, and how born in coats of arms, both foreign and domestick : with the instruments used in all trades and sciences, together with their terms of art : also the etymologies, definitions, and historical observations on the same, explicated and explained according to our modern language : very usefel [sic] for all gentlemen, scholars, divines, and all such as desire any knowledge in arts and sciences / by Randle Holme …
  • Publication date: 1688
  • NOBILITY
  • Author: Logan, John, 17th cent.
  • Title: Analogia honorum, or, A treatise of honour and nobility, according to the laws and customes of England collected out of the most authentick authors, both ancient and modern (lots about barons and knights)
  • Author: Allestree, Richard, 1619-1681.
  • Title: The gentlemans calling (a sermon against idleness in the nobility)
  • Author: Dugdale, William, Sir, 1605-1686.
  • Title: The baronage of England, or, An historical account of the lives and most memorable actions of our English nobility
  • Author: Woolley, Hannah, fl. 1670.
  • Title: The gentlewomans companion; or, A guide to the female sex containing directions of behaviour, in all places, companies, relations, and conditions, from their childhood down to old age: viz. As, children to parents. Scholars to governours. Single to servants. Virgins to suitors. Married to husbands. Huswifes to the house Mistresses to servants. Mothers to children. Widows to the world Prudent to all. With letters and discourses upon all occasions. Whereunto is added, a guide for cook-maids, dairy-maids, chamber-maids, and all others that go to service. The whole being an exact rule for the female sex in general.
  • Author: Cox, Nicholas, fl. 1673-1731.
  • Title: The gentleman’s recreation in four parts, viz. hunting, hawking, fowling, fishing : wherein these generous exercises are largely treated of, and the terms of art for hunting and hawking more amply enlarged than heretofore : whereto is prefixt a large sculpture, giving easie directions for blowing the horn, and other sculptures inserted proper to each recreation : with an abstract at the end of each subject of such laws as relate to the same.
  • Author: Peacham, Henry, 1576?-1643?
  • Title: The compleat gentleman fashioning him absolute in the most necessary & commendable qualities concerning minde or bodie that may be required in a noble gentleman. By Henry Peacham, Mr. of Arts sometime of Trinity Coll: in Cambridge.
  • Publication date: [1622] (also discusses when a gentleman ceases to be, aka peasantry)
  • Author: Brathwait, Richard, 1588?-1673.
  • Title: The English gentleman containing sundry excellent rules or exquisite observations, tending to direction of every gentleman, of selecter ranke and qualitie; how to demeane or accommodate himselfe in the manage of publike or private affaires. By Richard Brathwait Esq.
  • Author: Bacon, Francis, 1561-1626.
  • Title: A letter of advice written by Sr. Francis Bacon to the Duke of Buckingham, when he became favourite to King James
  • Publication date: 1661.
  • PIRATE
  • Author: Exquemelin, A. O. (Alexandre Olivier)
  • Title: The history of the bucaniers being an impartial relation of all the battels, sieges, and other most eminent assaults committed for several years upon the coasts of the West-Indies by the pirates of Jamaica and Tortuga, both English & other nations : more especially the unparallel’d atchievements of Sir H.M. / made English from the Dutch copy ; written by J. Esquemeling, one of the bucaniers ; very much corrected from the errours of the original by the relations of some English gentlemen that then resided in those parts.
  • Publication date: 1684
  • Author: Molloy, Charles, 1646-1690.
  • Title: De jure maritimo et navali, or, A treatise of affairs maritime and of commerce in three books / by Charles Molloy.
  • Publication date: 1676.
  • PRINTER
  • Author: Holme, Randle, 1627-1699.
  • Title: The academy of armory, or, A storehouse of armory and blazon containing the several variety of created beings, and how born in coats of arms, both foreign and domestick : with the instruments used in all trades and sciences, together with their terms of art : also the etymologies, definitions, and historical observations on the same, explicated and explained according to our modern language : very usefel [sic] for all
  • Author: Blount, Charles, 1654-1693.
  • Title: A just vindication of learning, or, An humble address to the high court of Parliament in behalf of the liberty of the press by Philopatris.
  • Publication date: 1679.

Sailor

Title: Wit and drollery joviall poems / corrected and much amended, with new additions, by Sir J.M. … Sir W.D. … and the most refined wits of the age.

Publication date: 1661. (2)

Author: M. P. (Martin Parker), d. 1656?

Title: Saylors for my money a new ditty composed in the praise of saylors and sea affaires … to the tune of The joviall cobler / [by] M.P.

Publication date: [ca. 1630?]

Servingman

Author: Basse, William, d. ca. 1653.

Title: Svvord and buckler, or, Seruing-mans defence. By William Bas.v

Publication date: 1602

Title: A health to the gentlemanly profession of seruingmen; or, The seruingmans comforts. With other thinges not impertinent to the premisses, as well pleasant as profitable to the courteous reader.

Publication date: 1598.

Author: Holme, Randle, 1627-1699.

Title: The academy of armory, or, A storehouse of armory and blazon containing the several variety of created beings, and how born in coats of arms, both foreign and domestick : with the instruments used in all trades and sciences, together with their terms of art : also the etymologies, definitions, and historical observations on the same, explicated and explained according to our modern language : very usefel [sic] for all gentlemen, scholars, divines, and all such as desire any knowledge in arts and sciences / by Randle Holme …

Publication date: 1688

Tailor (Taylor)

Title: Wit and drollery joviall poems / corrected and much amended, with new additions, by Sir J.M. … Sir W.D. … and the most refined wits of the age.

Publication date: 1661.

Author: Holme, Randle, 1627-1699.

Title: The academy of armory, or, A storehouse of armory and blazon containing the several variety of created beings, and how born in coats of arms, both foreign and domestick : with the instruments used in all trades and sciences, together with their terms of art : also the etymologies, definitions, and historical observations on the same, explicated and explained according to our modern language : very usefel [sic] for all

Yeoman (Land Owning Peasant)

Author: Logan, John, 17th cent.

Title: Analogia honorum, or, A treatise of honour and nobility, according to the laws and customes of England collected out of the most authentick authors, both ancient and modern : in two parts : the first containing honour military, and relateth to war, the second, honour civil, and relateth to court and city : illustrated with variety of sculptures su[i]table to the several subjects.

Publication date: 1677.

Author: Holme, Randle, 1627-1699.

Title: The academy of armory, or, A storehouse of armory and blazon containing the several variety of created beings, and how born in coats of arms, both foreign and domestick : with the instruments used in all trades and sciences, together with their terms of art : also the etymologies, definitions, and historical observations on the same, explicated and explained according to our modern language : very usefel [sic] for all gentlemen, scholars, divines, and all such as desire any knowledge in arts and sciences / by Randle Holme …

Publication date: 1688

General Class Resources

Title: The Accomplish’d lady’s delight in preserving, physick, beautifying, and cookery containing I. the art of preserving and candying fruits & flowers …, II. the physical cabinet, or, excellent receipts in physick and chirurgery : together with some rare beautifying waters, to adorn and add loveliness to the face and body : and also some new and excellent secrets and experiments in the art of angling, 3. the compleat cooks guide, or, directions for dressing all sorts of flesh, fowl, and fish, both in the English and French mode …

Publication date: 1675.

Author: Cotton, Charles, 1630-1687.

Title: The compleat gamester

Author: Fuller, Thomas, 1608-1661.

Title: The history of the worthies of England who for parts and learning have been eminent in the several counties : together with an historical narrative of the native commodities and rarities in each county / endeavoured by Thomas Fuller.

Publication date: 1662.

Author: Hall, Edward, d. 1547.

Title: The vnion of the two noble and illustre famelies of Lancastre [and] Yorke, beeyng long in continual discension for the croune of this noble realme with all the actes done in bothe the tymes of the princes, bothe of the one linage and of the other, beginnyng at the tyme of kyng Henry the fowerth, the first aucthor of this deuision, and so successiuely proceadyng to the reigne of the high and prudent prince kyng Henry the eight, the vndubitate flower and very heire of both the sayd linages.

Publication date: 1548.

Author: Holme, Randle, 1627-1699.

Title: The academy of armory, or, A storehouse of armory and blazon containing the several variety of created beings, and how born in coats of arms, both foreign and domestick : with the instruments used in all trades and sciences, together with their terms of art : also the etymologies, definitions, and historical observations on the same, explicated and explained according to our modern language : very usefel [sic] for all gentlemen, scholars, divines, and all such as desire any knowledge in arts and sciences / by Randle Holme …

Publication date: 1688

Title: The New academy of complements erected for ladies, gentlewomen, courtiers, gentlemen, scholars, souldiers, citizens, country-men, and all persons, of what degree soever, of both sexes : stored with variety of courtly and civil complements, eloquent letters of love and friendship : with an exact collection of the newest and choicest songs áa la mode, both amorous and jovial / compiled by the most refined wits of this age.

Publication date: 1669.

Title: A new ballad, containing a communication between the carefull wife, and the comfortable husb[and] touching the common cares and charges of house-hold.

Publication date: c. 1640]

Author: Stow, John, 1525?-1605.

Title: A suruay of London. Contayning the originall, antiquity, increase, moderne estate, and description of that citie, written in the yeare 1598. by Iohn Stow citizen of London. Also an apologie (or defence) against the opinion of some men, concerning that citie, the greatnesse thereof. With an appendix, containing in Latine, Libellum de situ & nobilitate Londini: written by William Fitzstephen, in the raigne of Henry the second.

Author: Taylor, John, 1580-1653.

Title: A late weary, merry voyage and journey, or, Iohn Taylors moneths travells by sea and land, from London to Gravesend, to Harwich, to Ipswich, to Norwich, to Linne, to Cambridge, and from thence to London : performed and written on purpose to please his friends and to pleasure himselfe in these unpleasant and necessitated times.

Publication date: 1650.

Author: Taylor, John, 1580-1653.

Title: Part of this summers travels, or News from hell, Hull, and Hallifax, from York, Linne, Leicester, Chester, Coventry, Lichfield, Nottingham, and the Divells Ars a peake. With many pleasant passages, worthy your observation and reading. By Iohn Taylor.

Publication date: [1639]

Secondary source possibilities

Coward, B. (1997). Social change and continuity, England 1550-1750. New York: Longman.

Coward, B. (1994). The Stuart age: England, 1603-1714. New York: Longman.

Cressy, D. (1997). Birth, marriage, and death: Ritual, religion, and the life-cycle in Tudor and Stuart England. New York: Oxford University Press.

Graham, E. (Ed.). (1989). Her own life: Autobiographical writings by seventeenth century women. New York: Routledge.

Marvel, L. (Ed.). (2002). Elizabethan England. San Diego, CA: Greenhaven Press.

McMurtry, J. (Ed.). (1989). Understanding Shakespeare’s England: A companion for the American reader. Hamden, CT: Archon Books.

Palmer, A. (1999). Who’s Who in Shakespeare’s England. New York: St. Martin’s Press.

Picard, L. (2004). Elizabeth’s London: Everyday Life in Elizabethan London. New York: St. Martin’s Press.

Singman, J. (1995). Daily life in Elizabethan England. Westport, CT: Greenwood Press.

Underdown, D. (1996). A freeborn people: Politics and the nation in seventeenth- century England. New York: Oxford University Press.

Weir, A. (1999). The life of Elizabeth I. New York: Ballantine.